KALI PHILOSOPHY Maniwalla Kami Sa Tagumpay, Hindi Sa Bigo	. .  . . . . . . .(We Believe in Success, Not in Failure) Maniwalla Kami Sa Kalusugan, Hindi Sa Sakit . . . . . . . . . . .(We Believe in Health, Not in Sickness) Maniwalla Kami Sa Buhay, Hindi Sa Kamatayan . . . . . . . . . (We Believe in Life, Not in Death) Kali is the oldest form of weaponry in the Philippines. It comes from the word kalis, which implies  the blade. The naturally graceful and harmonious movements used in this art are characteristic of the  methods found in other Asian countries.   Kali is a very systematic art of combat fighting based in the science of strategy and tactics. The  fighting methods of Kali are ultra advanced so that its fighting values always remain new. Kali does not  only imply the use of the stick, blade, or empty hand combat, but is also a reflection of the Filipino  people’s history, philosophy, and culture.  The Filipino people represent the strong segments of the Majaphit Empire that ruled Asia from the  7th to the 15th centuries. They had a significant part in and made many contributions to the civilization of  the Pacific region.  The practice of combat fighting with the use of the blade is part of their customs and traditions. The  blade was inseparable in their ceremonial systems. The application of the theories into the martial arts  skills and the will to live in freedom gained great victories over the Spanish and American colonization's  and the Japanese invasion of the Pacific.  There are over a hundred related styles in Kali, and their principles in combat are all based in a  pattern of angles, which all attacks fall into, regardless of style of weapon.  A combat system of Kali, the Comjuka-Kali Systems, a close quarter in-fighting method, is a  combination of higher techniques of Kali. Comjuka-Kali Systems put a tremendous emphasis on the  importance of footwork. The theories of strategic defense, offense and counter offense, have been tested  and proven effective and accurate in many different combat situations. BRIEF KALI HISTORY Kali is the oldest known form of self defense of the Philippines and its use of weapons.    During the time of Christ, Hindu beliefs came to the Philippines from Malaysia. By the fifteenth  century the islands were inhabited by people from China, India, Arabia, and other Nations who mixed with  the original Negretos who settled in the Philippines.  In the Southern Philippines there lived mostly Muslims called the Moro, who used a wide variety of  knives in their dance and other martial skills.   On March 6th, 1521, a Spanish explorer, Magellan, arrived to the Philippines and by the 27th of  April he was killed on the island of Mactan. His discovery of the islands brought other Spaniards. After the  Spanish occupation and the establishment of the capital in Manila, many other Western nations came to  the Philippines.  In 1896, about 400,000 Tagalog people from Luzon, the largest island in the Philippines, revolted  against the Spanish occupation which led to the provisional republic in 1898. It was from this race of  people that the term Kali was derived to describe their martial arts also known as Arnis. This system  utilizes two bladed weapons.   Training was originally conducted in total secrecy and sticks called muton replaced the blades for  both safety and secrecy. Modern practitioners use rattan sticks up to one meter in length. Techniques  involve either one or two sticks in a continuous striking action against vulnerable parts of the body.  During the 1980's, point Eskrima was devised with a prescribed fighting area, a scoring system, and  body armor in many cases and National competitions.   The prime target of an attacker in Eskrima is the hand or lower part of the arm because if a vital  point is attacked, the reflexes of the injured person may still enable them to counter attack and cause  equal or greater damage, therefore the limb or hand holding the weapon is the target. Getting rid of the  weapon equals far less of a threat.  When the Americans occupied the Philippines in the late nineteenth century, there were many  Filipino fighters who wore red headbands and were armed with a blade and ran amok killing American  Soldiers who were armed with a .38 revolver. The red headband worn by the Jurementado, a Muslim  skilled in the art of Kali, signified that he would not stop fighting until he himself was killed. Thus, the Colt  1911 .45 caliber automatic was developed to deal with the Jurementado. These events confirm the  Eskrima policy to disarm the attacker first.   Unlike Japanese martial arts, Kali students are taught to employ the techniques they are learning in  a manner that seems natural to them as opposed to a rigid memorization of very specific maneuvers. This  also prevents a predictable counter attack against the Kali Warrior.  The psychology of Kali, Arnis, or Eskrima are radically different from most of the other martial arts.  This could be partly due to the fact that for almost four hundred years, the Philippines were a conquered  country and the arts were outlawed, unlike Japan or China where the arts were excepted as part of their  culture and could be practiced openly. But in the Philippines, the art that existed dictated that the  practitioner seize the opportunity of the moment, to strike back suddenly with disguised movements.   Arnis, originally known as Kali, centers around three distinct phases. The stick, blade, and empty  hand combat. The term sinawali, a form of play or techniques applied because the intricate movements of  the two sticks resemble the crisscross weave of a sewali, a pattern used in walling and matting.   Three principle Kali training methods include the muestrasion or pandalog, which teaches the  artistic execution of swinging movements and striking for offense and defense in repetitive drills.   The sangga at patama, or sombra tabak where striking, thrusting, and parrying in a pre-arranged  manner are taught.   Also the larga muton, or labanang totohanan, where two trainees engage in freestyle practice,  which is the ultimate phase of Arnis.   Two key principles to be learned in Kali are under the categories of physical and psychological.  Under the physical, the practitioner must develop speed of hands and feet and agility for rapid delivery  and zoning, or evasion. Under the psychological principles, the student must learn to remain calm and  composed, and above all, develop the will to fight AND WIN! "We believe in success, not in failure".   The skills learned in this lethal art are, close quarter, medium range, and long range combat tactics  as well as direct and indirect combat primarily utilizing the kahoy (stick), the kutsilio (knife), and or the  empty hands. These weapons, and of course the empty hand techniques, are very practical in today's  society for self preservation and the protection of others.  Kali has been around for centuries. It has been tested and proven effective and practical and also  develops both the mind and the spirit for a healthy whole well being. KALI - ARNIS - ARNIS DE MANO - ESKRIMA CEBU CITY, PHILIPPINES Flags of the Katipunan  With the Katipunan now well organized, Bonifacio turned his attention to the symbol of  its authority. Upon his request, Benita Rodriquez with the help of Gregoria de Jesus,  Bonifacio's wife, made a flag. It consisted of a red rectangular piece of cloth with three  white K's arranged horizontally at the center. This was the first official flag of the society.  But some members of the Katipunan has their flag with the three K's arranged in the form  of a triangle. Bonifacio himself has a personal flag which consisted of a red rectangular  piece of cloth at the center of which was a white sun with an indefinite number of rays.  Below the sun were the three white K's arranged horizontally.  Owing to the lack of uniformity in the design and use of the flag, some generals of the  revolution adopted their own designs. Thus General Mariano Llanera used a black banner  with a skull above two cross bones and the letter K, all in white. So different was this  banner that Bonifacio humorously called it "Llanera's skull." Still another flag was that of  General Pio del Pilar which consisted of an equilateral triangle with a K at each angle.  Inside the triangle was a mountain with the sun rising behind it.  When the revolution flared up, the Magdalo faction of the Katipunan in Cavite adopted  a flag consisting of a red rectangular banner with a white K in the ancient Tagalog script in  the center of a sun, represented by a white circle, with an indefinite number of rays. Later  on, the rays of the sun were limited to eight to represent the eight provinces which first  took up arms against the Spaniards. This flag became the first official banner of the  revolutionary forces and was blessed in a mass celebrated at Imus.  In the Naik Assembly of March 17, 1897, the Katipunan military leaders decided to  adopt a flag with a new design. It consisted of a red rectangular cloth with a white sun and  rays in the middle. The sun was the mythological sun with eyes, eyebrows, nose and  mouth. This flag superseded the flag of the Magdalo faction and became the first official  flag of the Filipinos. It became the symbol of the Filipino nationality until the signing of the  Truce of Biyak-na-bato on December 14-15, 1897, when it was hauled down from the pole of  the revolutionary headquarters at Biyak-na-bato.              ~ History of the Filipino People. Teodoro A. Agoncillo    The Filipino Flag  The Filipino flag has an interesting story. It was made in Hongkong by Mrs. Marcela de  Agoncillo, wife of Don Felipe Agoncillo.  During his exile in Hongkong, General Aguinaldo designed the flag as it looks today.  Mrs. Marcela de Agoncillo sewed it with the help of her daughter Lorenza and Mrs. Josefina  Herbosa de Natividad(niece of Dr. Jose Rizal). It was made of silk with a white triangle at  the left containing a sunburst of eight rays at the center, a five pointed star at each angle of  the triangle, an upper stripe of dark blue, and a lower stripe of red. The white triangle  stands for equality; the upper blue stripe for peace, truth and justice; and the lower red  stripe for patriotism and valor. The sunburst of eight rays inside the triangle represented  the first eight provinces that took up arms against Spain. The three stars symbolized  Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao.  The flag which Mrs. Agoncillo made in Hongkong was taken to the Philippines by  General Aguinaldo. It was hoisted officially at Kawit on June 12, 1898, in connection with  the proclamation of Philippine independence. From that date, it has served as the National  Flag of the Filipinos.             ~ The Philippines: A Unique Nation. Dr. Sonia M. Zaide The Evolution of the Philippine Flag Weapons of Moroland - See, not just Sticks! LAPU LAPU STATUE IN CEBU CITY, PHILIPPINES HISTORY OF KALI, ARNIS, ESKRIMA AND HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES FLAG
Courtesy of:  http://www.msc.edu.ph/centennial/flags.html Courtesy of:  http://www.msc.edu.ph/centennial/flags.html